A cough is a symptom of many diseases. Most coughs come from simple viral infections, such as the common cold. Sometimes, but not always, mucus is produced with the cough. If the colour is green or yellow, it may be a hint of a bacterial infection, although this is not always a reliable indicator.
If the color is red, there may be bleeding in the lungs. Any cough that produces blood or blood-stained mucus, as well as any cough that lasts more than two weeks, requires a visit to a medical professional for diagnosis.
Herbs that may be helpful
A number of herbs have a rich history of use for treating coughs due to colds, bronchitis, or other mild conditions. Only a few studies have examined the effectiveness of these herbs. However, their effectiveness is well-known by practitioners of herbal medicine the world over.
Among those herbs that have been shown to have some degree of cough- relieving activity are marshmallow, sundew, and coltsfoot. Use of coltsfoot should be limited to preparations of the leaves and flowers only, as the root is high in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, constituents that may be toxic to the liver.
Thyme has a long history of use in Europe for the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as for bronchitis. Many constituents in thyme team up to provide its antitussive (preventing and treating a cough), antispasmodic, and expectorant actions. The primary constituents are the volatile oils, which include the phenols thymol and carvacol.
These are complemented by the actions of flavonoids along with saponins. Thyme, either alone or in combination with herbs such as sundew, continues to be one of the most commonly recommended herbs in Europe for the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as for whooping cough. Because of its apparent safety, it has become a favorite for treating coughs in small children.
The active constituents in anise (Pimpinella anisum), particularly the terpenoid anethole, give this plant a delightful flavor. As an antispasmodic, it helps in gently relieving spasmodic coughs.
The mucilage of slippery elm gives it a soothing effect for coughs. Usnea also contains mucilage, which may be helpful in easing irritating coughs. There is a long tradition of using wild cherry syrups to treat coughs.
Other traditional remedies to relieve coughs include bloodroot, catnip, comfrey (the above-ground parts, not the root), horehound, elecampane, mullein, lobelia, hyssop, licorice, mallow, (Malvia sylvestris), red clover, ivy leaf, pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides, Mentha pulegium), onion, (Allium cepa), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. major). None of these has been investigated in human trials, so their true efficacy for relieving coughs is unknown.
The early 19th-century Eclectic physicians in the United States (who used herbs as their main medicine) not only employed eucalyptus oil to sterilize instruments and wounds but also recommended a steam inhalation of the oil’s vapor to help treat asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, and emphysema.
Holistic approaches that may be helpful
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may be helpful in the treatment of a cough. Cupping (the use of a glass cup to create suction over a skin surface) is a traditional Chinese therapy, often used for patients to help relieve a cough. An uncontrolled study using cupping to relieve coughs reported a curative response in 35 of 41 patients. Other TCM therapies, including acupuncture and herbal medicine, may be helpful in cough-producing ailments such as asthma and bronchitis.